Totalitarianism according to Holt Rinehart Winston "Legacy" - .the attempt by a government to control all aspect of life.

  • must possess a single ideology which must be "accepted" by all
  • one single mass party which is typically controlled by one person to whom the central govt answers
  • a monopoly over the armed forces
  • means of mass communication suppressed
  • use of paramilitary force - secret police
  • manage the direction of the economy
Fascism - Mussolini
Fascism: Nazi Party - Hitler
Communism - Stalin
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Mussolini Bio - 4min
Link to Mussolini Bio Site
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Mussolini & Hitler
Josef Stalin
Josef Stalin

Italy: Son of the Wolf circa 1925

Hitler Youth
Hitler Youth

Soviet Cult of Childhood
Soviet Cult of Childhood

  • Fascism vs. Communism
For more on Mussolini - See his biography links-features many quotes(extra reading!!)


Reasons for Italians to Embrace Totalitarianism

  • Internal turmoil

  • weak government

  • devastated economy that had not been fully developed before WWI; still in tough shape post-WWI

  • dreams of the glory days of the Roman Empire ( reminders are every where)

  • need for someone to restore order & maintain peace

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So can you define Fascism?? Also called Nazism or National Socialism in Germany?

It was a collection of ideas and prejudices that celebrated the supremacy of the state over the individual; of dictatorship over democracy; of authoritarianism over freedom of speech; of regulated state-oriented economy over a free-market economy; and of militarism and war over peace.

Joseph Stalin

"we are the realisation plan 1933"
"we are the realisation plan 1933"

What is Communism? How is it different from Capitalism?

Communism & Capitalism: What's the difference?

What is Capitalism - World Socialist Movement

Make a Pros/ Con List of both socioeconomic theories.
Khan Academy - 3 Socioeconomic Theories
Khan Academy: When Capitalism is not so good

3 Econ Theories - Notes

"We are the Realisation of the Plan (1933)

Soviet Archive - 5 Aspects of Soviet Society

  1. The Gulag
  2. Collectivization and Industrialization
  3. Anti-Religious Campaigns
  4. Early Attacks on Intelligentsia
  5. Attacks on Intelligentsia: Censorship

Problems of the New Soviet Union

1.Near economic collapse in 1921
Lenin's New Economic Policy allowed
some free entreprise
collective farms
failed, famine resulted
4.power struggle
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Stalin - victor
Trotsky - exile & death
5.little economic growth
Stalin's first 5 year plan
some growth in industrial sector
millions dead

Point #1 - The New Soviet economy was in ruins due to the Civil War for power between the Bolsheviks(Reds) vs. the Mensheviks(Whites). After the Reds won, you may recall that the government seized all private property and redistributed it among the lower classes. This included factories and farms as well as private homes. Under Lenin's policy the New Economic Policy or (LEP), some economic freedoms were permitted to prevent total economic collapse. Individuals could buy and sell farm products which created a small class of businessmen who practiced free enterprise thus avoiding total financial ruin.Stalin & the Command Economy-

Point #2 - Agriculture in the USSR - Collective Farming - This policy was started by Lenin and continued on after Stalin gained control. What was it and why was it necessary? Explain the possible reasons for the results.

Point #3 - Trotsky or Stalin? Who should succeed Lenin after his death in 1924? A power struggle ensued between Josef Stalin and Leon Trotsky; both men had played vital roles in the revolution and Lenin's ascent to leadership. Trotsky created and led the Red Army in the Civil War while Stalin served as the leader of the Communist Party. Their differences were in the scope of the revolution in which both fully believed. Trotsky wanted the workers of other nations to rise and revolt against their oppressors - a more international Marxist viewpoint. Stalin differed with this as his vision of change encompassed only the newly formed USSR( Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). Stalin won the battle and Trotsky was exiled to Mexico where he was murdered(Stalin responsible??).

Point #4 - Limited Economic Growth - Where was the growth and why?

Life in Gulag Website with personal narratives/photos

Inside Soviet Gulag Perm 93external image Gulag_1_3237387b.jpg

Real Footage of Gulag
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Soviet Gulags w/ Graphs

By 1939, it was estimated that 5 million people had been arrested, deported, imprisoned in hard labor camps, or executed." Another peasant, with six children, met a different fate. Because he had six mouths to feed he devoted himself wholeheartedly to collective farm work, and he kept hoping he would get some return for his labor. And he did- they awarded him a decoration. They awarded it in a special assembly, made speeches. He said, 'Now if I could just have a sack of flour instead of this decoration! Somehow, couldn't I?' A wolflike laugh rocketed through the hall, and the newly decorated hero went off to exile, together with all six of those dependent mouths."Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, from The Gulag Archipeligo
this book "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich" by Alexander Solzhenitsyn chronicles life in the gulag from sunrise to sundown for this Soviet prisoner in a gulag. Although is it is considered historical fiction and is meant for the reading level of a 7th grade student, Solzhenitsyn lets us in on the conditions of life in a Siberian gulag. If you are not up for his more serious life story in "The Gulag Archipelago" , then I recommend reading this one.
M Healy.
Holodomor - Ukraine Eyewitnesses


*Preserve existing social classes
*Abolish Social classes
*Encourage ownership of private property
*Share all property communally
*Control through force and censorship
*Control though force and censorship
Govt Power
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